ABDOMINAL AND STOMACH PAIN

CAUSES, SYMPTOMS AND EXPERIENCES OF USERS OF SPRUCE PRODUCTS WHO HAVE STOMACH OR ABDOMINAL PAIN

Author: Matic Konc

resources used

published: 18/07/2019

updated: 7/18/2019

Abdominal pain is all the pain that occurs between the chest and the pubic area. Abdominal pain can be crampy, dull, or sharp .
The origin of abdominal pain can be very different, as there are very different organs in the abdominal cavity that are protected by the peritoneum or peritoneum:

  • stomach

  • liver

  • gallbladder

  • spleen

  • pancreas

  • small intestine

  • kidneys

  • Colon

  • adrenal glands

Bolečine v trebuhu
 

WHAT CAN BE THE CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL AND STOMACH PAIN?

When abdominal pain occurs, we most often think of the source of the pain in the stomach or intestines, which is often the case. The most common causes are:

CHRONIC INFLAMMATION AND Ulcers of the gastric mucosa and duodenum

Bolečine v želodcu

There are glands in the gastric mucosa that produce stomach acid and digestive enzymes. The acid with enzymes is strong enough to damage the gastric mucosa, but this is protected by the secretion of protective mucus. However, abdominal pain occurs when the gastric or duodenal mucosa becomes inflamed due to bacteria, excessive alcohol consumption, medication or chronic stress and can no longer secrete enough protective mucus to successfully protect itself against gastric juice, resulting in inflammation and ulcers. gastric mucosa.  In addition to stomach pain, a feeling of premature satiety may also appear after just a few bites.

If chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa is not taken seriously, it can eventually lead to ulcers and later to precancerous changes in the gastric mucosa.

WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF CHRONIC GASTRITIS IN ADDITION TO STOMACH PAIN? 

Stomach ache

People with inflammation of the gastric mucosa often experience pain in the abdomen, namely in the upper middle part of the abdomen . Stomach pain is usually greatest in the upper left part of the stomach. Sometimes the pain strains towards the back.

Flatulence and vomiting

Often, abdominal pain is accompanied by bloating and vomiting . When vomiting occurs, the vomit is clear, yellow, or green. With severe gastritis, traces of blood may appear in it, as well as difficulty breathing, chest pain and very severe stomach pain.

Simptomi gastritisa
Bolečine v trebuhu zaradi rane na želodcu

WHAT CAUSES CHRONIC GASTRITIS?

There are various causes for stomach pain due to chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa:

Autoimmune antibodies

Type A is an autoimmune form of chronic gastritis where our own antibodies  attack the cells of the gastric mucosa. Because the cells are damaged, they cannot secrete a sufficient amount of protective mucus and inflammation occurs. Inflammation is accompanied by stomach pain and poor absorption of vitamin B12 and iron . The cause of the autoimmune reaction is unknown, but it is more common in people who already suffer from other autoimmune diseases.

Helicobacter pylori infection (type B)
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Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori is the first officially recognized bacterial carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, affecting more than half of the world's population , more than 80% in underdeveloped countries and up to 40% in the developed world. The source of Helicobacter pylori infection is not yet known, but it is most likely that most infections occur in childhood through person-to-person transmission.

Helicobacter pylori is adapted to live in an otherwise very unfriendly environment of the gastric mucosa. Because it knows how to protect itself from the immune response , it stays there for a lifetime. Helicobacter pylori infection does not in itself cause disease but is a risk factor for various diseases that cause abdominal pain and stomach pain. These are mainly chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa, ulcers and wounds of the gastric mucosa, as well as cancer of the gastric mucosa . There is a constant struggle between the guest and the bacterium, which affects whether the disease will develop or not. The individual's immune response, propensity to inflammation, and secretion of stomach acid play a key role in this.
Inflammation is accompanied by pain, ulcers and wounds may appear in the stomach and intestines, and precancerous changes may develop over time.

Chemical substances

Type C is caused by chemicals:

  • long-term use of anti-inflammatory NSAIDs such as aspirin and ibuprofen can irritate the gastric mucosa and cause mucosal ulcers and abdominal pain.

  • Excessive and chronic alcohol consumption, especially spirits, is also a strong risk factor for chronic gastritis and pain. Ulcers and sores also form in the stomach.

  • the gastric mucosa is also irritated by bile if it enters the stomach from the duodenum due to so-called bile reflux.

  • smoking is also a strong risk factor for abdominal pain due to gastritis

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Food allergies

It is eosinophilic gastritis  inflammation of the gastric mucosa due to allergies to substances in food. Stomach pain occurs because the immune system responds to substances in food by infiltrating eosinophil immune cells. These are most often milk proteins or drug ingredients.

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Stress-induced abdominal and stomach pain

Stress causes increased secretion of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and histamine, which cause increased secretion of acid in the stomach. On the other hand, free radicals and reduced gastric blood flow cause the protective ability of the gastric mucosa. The mucosa becomes inflamed and stomach pains occur.

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REFLUX DISEASE OF THE Esophagus

Anatomija zdravega želodca

Chronic acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), causes a burning sensation and pain in the abdomen that is sharply located in the upper abdomen below the spoon and can radiate toward the neck. Heartburn is a common term used by people to describe these pains. In the stomach, mucosal cells produce acid and enzymes to break down substances from food. The gastric mucosa is protected from gastric acid by mucus, which is also secreted by the cells of the gastric mucosa, which does not apply to the esophagus , which is not as effectively protected from acid as the stomach. The passage of acid from the stomach into the esophagus (esophagus) is prevented by a muscular barrier (lower esophageal sphincter). Reflux occurs when the pressure of the sphincter is less than the pressure of the stomach contents. This can happen up to fifty times a day in meals or when bending forward, even in healthy individuals, but only in a minority does it also cause damage to the esophageal mucosa and abdominal pain. Oesophageal reflux disease occurs if:

  • the esophageal sphincter too weak to perform its function, 

  • the production of acid in the gastric mucosa is too high or if it is hypersensitive or gastric emptying is too slow and therefore the pressure of the stomach contents on the sphincter is increased

  • the cleansing of the esophagus is slowed down, so the acid stays in the esophagus for too long and causes problems and pain in the abdomen (under the spoon)

Refluksna bolezen požiralnika

For these reasons, the acid leaks back into the esophagus, where it causes heartburn and abdominal pain and damages the lining of the esophagus .
Oesophageal reflux disease is common in the Western world and occurs in as many as 10 to 20% of the population. Risk factors for esophageal reflux disease are:

  • Genetic predispositions

  • Overweight.

  • Gastric ulcers

  • Hiatal hernia

  • Pregnancy

  • Smoking

  • Excessive alcohol consumption

  • unhealthy diet

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ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS OR ACUTE INFLAMMATION OF THE GASTRIC AND INTESTINAL MUCOSA

ACUTE BACTERIAL  GASTROENTERITIS OR FOOD POISONING

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If bacteria cause inflammation and pain in the abdomen, this is called bacterial gastroenteritis or. with a widespread term for this type of infection: food poisoning . Typical signs are vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, and abdominal pain, especially stomach and intestinal pain.

The most common are infections with bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, Shigella, Salmonella, Staphylococcus and others . The infection is caused by eating underheated poultry and other meat products or contaminated water.

ACUTE VIRAL  GASTROENTERITIS

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Viral gastrointestinal infection or viral gastroenteritis is a very common cause of stomach pain accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea.

People often call the condition stomach flu , although it has nothing to do with the flu virus. Characteristic of viral gastroenteritis is that it is highly contagious and is transmitted very quickly from person to person.

The most common causative agents are rotaviruses and noraviruses. There are signs of infection  abdominal pain, especially stomach and intestinal pain,  vomiting,  diarrhea  in  fever.  The infection usually goes away in a day or two, but can last up to ten days.

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WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTION IN ADDITION TO STOMACH PAIN? 

Acute gastritis usually goes away in one to two days , and sometimes abdominal pain can last up to ten days . Acute gastritis is usually accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • Watery diarrhea

  • Abdominal pain, cramps and stomach pain

  • Forced vomiting and vomiting

  • Headache

  • Fever

 
 

CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY INTESTINAL DISEASE

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease comprises two diseases that cause prolonged inflammation of the intestinal wall and abdominal pain. These are:

  • Ulcerative colitis, which causes prolonged inflammation and ulcers on the lining of the colon and rectum.

  • Crohn’s disease is also a chronic inflammatory disease of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract and can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting all layers of the intestinal wall.

SIGNS ACCOMPANYING CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY INTESTINAL DISEASE IN ADDITION TO ABDOMINAL PAIN

Signs of chronic inflammatory disease and the intensity of abdominal pain depend on the degree of inflammation of the gastrointestinal wall. They can occur in periods followed by periods of no problems . Signs of inflammatory bowel disease are:

  • Diarrhea

  • Cramps and abdominal pain

  • Blood in the stool

  • Unintentional weight loss and decreased appetite

  • Growth retardation in children and adolescents

Sometimes the disease is accompanied by:

  • Fever

  • Pain and swelling in the joints

  • Inflammation of the eyes

Kronična vnetna črevesna bolezen

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF CHRONIC  INFLAMMATORY  INTESTINAL  DISEASES?

The cause of chronic  inflammatory  intestinal  diseases  not known.  

  • One possible cause is a malfunction of the immune system that attacks the cells of the intestinal wall

  • Genetic predispositions and family history of the disease also play an important role. 

  • For most people, abdominal pain that leads to a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease occurs before the age of thirty. 

  • It is more common in the developed world

  • Smoking is a very important risk factor for developing the disease.

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (eg Ibuprofen, voltaren, aspirin) may contribute to the development or exacerbation of the disease